Tuesday, August 16

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6. Ur III (Neo-Sumerian)
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6. Ur III (Neo-Sumerian)

Ur III 2350-2004 (Neo-Sumerian) During the waning days of the Akkadian empire Ur-Bau of Lagash enjoyed prosperity and independence. When he died in 2144 BC his son-in law Gudea succeeded him as Ensi of Lagash. Gudea reigned from 2144-2124 BC during the time of the Gutian terror but was able to continue Lagash's independence most likely through statesmanship, paying tribute to the Gutians and by having a massive army. He exerted influence throughout all of the Sumerian city-states although he did not claim to be the 'King of Sumer.' Gudea's appearance is known today because of numerous statues depicting him with unprecedented lifelike realism. They show him wearing a simple Shepard's hat not a crown. Most of his his inscriptions describe his vast program of building temples and irrigati...
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Ur III (Neo-Sumerian)

During the waning days of the Akkadian empire Ur-Bauof Lagash enjoyed properity and independence. When he died in 2144 BC his son-in law Gudea succeeded him as ensi of Lagsh.  
5. Sarru-Kin
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5. Sarru-Kin

Kish The city of Kish was founded by Sumerians likely during the Jemdet Nasr Period about 3200 BC. This seemed to change after The Flood since the Sumerian King’s List has about half of the Kings after the Flood having Semitic names. This indicates a migration of Semitic people from the Levant – modern day Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon - into the region. Kish was located on the northern boundary of Sumer. While these people of Kish were not Sumerian it would be difficult to entirely separate the two; there was enormous cultural assimilation in their languages, trade and religion and no doubt inter-marriages. And while they shared the same culture there were differences as well. The people of Kish worn long hair and beards unlike the Sumerians who shaved their face and heads. And...
4. Early Dynastic
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4. Early Dynastic

Early Dynastic 3000–2350 The Flood Eridu Geneses tablet found in Nippur At the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period, about 2900 BC, a great flood swept over Sumer. The Euphrates and Tigris rivers overflowed their banks and forced the Sumerians to abandon their cities and fields – fleeing for their lives. While it was common for the rivers to flood this was a massive flood which disrupted all of Sumer. Many accounts of this flood exist today, the earliest accounting was written by the Sumerians and is referred to as the Eridu Genesis. In this version, the hero of the story is the Priest-King of the Sumerian city of Suruppak. He is called Ziudsura (‘life of long days’) and he is chosen by God (Enki) to survive the flood and preserve life and knowledge on Earth. Found in the Sumerian ci...
3. Jemdet Nasr
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3. Jemdet Nasr

Transition - Jemdet Nasr period 3200–3000 BC While some Sumerian chronologies do not include the Jemdet Nasr period it represents what is likely the most important point in the history of civilization. During this period the Sumerians made ground breaking advancements in urbanization, centralized management, writing, mathematics and so much more. In addition, this point in time shows the earliest development in Egypt - the pre-dynastic period called Dynasty 0. In India, this period shows early signs of the Indus Valley Civilization. While the Sumerians appear to be the 'first',' at 3000 BC we have simultaneous rise of three great civilizations all developing mostly independently of the others and reflecting cultural advances within their own distinctly different cultures. It was during t...
2. Ubaid-Uruk
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2. Ubaid-Uruk

Ubaid - Uruk In the early 1800s European archaeologists went to dig in the sands of Iraq to prove the veracity of the Bible. They sought to find actual artifacts proving the existence of King Solomon, the City of David, Abraham and YHW. They were successful but in unexpected ways. Excavating the ancient city of Uruk, in the southernmost part of modern day Iraq, archaeologist uncovered a number of clay tablets written in the cuneiform script used throughout the region for 3000 years that, when translated, seemed to be in an unknown language. They knew how to read the cuneiform script in Assyrian, Babylonian and Akkadian but these tablets were none of those languages. The eventual decipherment of these tablets revealed an unknown tongue that was far older than the Akkadian records - Ki-En-...
Ki-En-Gi
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Ki-En-Gi

Location, Chronologies and Periods They called themselves the black headed people and they lived in the Ki-En-Gi (Land Lord Civilized.) Much later in time, when the Akkadians ruled the region, their land was called Shumeru. In our time we had no knowledge of the black headed people although there were vague references to an unknown land called Shinar in the Old Testament. Dating of artifacts, reigns of Kings and actual historical events in ancient history is imprecise and uses relative dating; using the known time of one event to infer the time of another event. Occasionally astronomical events are mentioned, such as solar eclipses or the movement of Venus and these events can be precisely dated. Today there are two dating systems in use for Mesopotamia which vary by some 64 years; the...